Posts Tagged Cambridge
Last week we expanded on the purpose of examples – to give evidence to the judge: your marker. Now it’s time for some judgement of your own.
To communicate your examples, you have two main choices: use quotations or citations. Quotations are when you use the exact words of the person or article that you’re referring to – it’s often called a direct quotation because you’re taking the words directly from the source. Citations, on the other hand, are where you express the example in your own words. You paraphrase it. Note that you’re still communicating the same idea – you don’t change the concept; just the words used to describe it. So when should you quote and when should you cite an example from another source?
You’ve got to use the best form of evidence at the time. Think about the situation and what applies. What do the markers want to see? For a high school English course, like Cambridge (CIE) English Literature, markers want to see you tie your analysis very closely to the text. English Literature markers measure this requirement by looking for lots of direct quotations.
University markers usually don’t. They want to see that you can think for yourself. (That’s the whole point of higher education). This means university markers usually prefer citations because if you can express an idea well in your own words, it proves that you’ve understood the concept. They can always tell if you’re on topic anyway. So, when at university, I’d probably paraphrase where possible. Anyone can be a parrot.
See how the markers want to see the same underlying skills: good analysis of a question, identifying relevant information in the text (and other literature), explaining and linking the evidence coherently and persuasively – yet they also view quotations quite differently. Another example of how being able to think in a sophisticated nuanced way is valuable – you can adjust to different assessment styles.
So both university and high school English markers want you to achieve the same thing: a close analysis of the text that proves you can think for yourself. The skills required are the same, but they lead to very different signs of success. Now you can use your judgement about whether to quote or cite ideas, depending on the emphasis of your course. If in doubt, check with your teacher or lecturer. Prove to the judges that you can analyse; and prove that you can be original and think for yourself.
All the best!
Photo Credit: Image by Ed7 via Flickr
We all know they’re important. If you don’t have quotations, facts, or other types of evidence in your essay, your body paragraphs won’t prove your points (unless you make up quotations, which we don’t recommend). A Literature essay without quotations is like plum pudding without any plums (and everything around it has turned to custard too). So for exam essays, if you can’t take the text(s) into the exam with you, and you’re not going to get a text in the exam itself, you’ll have to memorise quotations.
Here’s what I did to memorise quotations – I’d create a “Quote Sheet’:
- Collect all the potentially useful quotations that you might use in the exam (go through essays you’ve already written on the topic, notes you’ve made in class, and find new ones from the text itself if necessary).
- Cull this list down to the bare essential quotations, without losing so much information that you won’t be able to write about key parts of the text. Keep quotations which are important and versatile. Quotations that demonstrate techniques and are launch-pads for thematic discussions are excellent quotations.
- Condense the quotations on your short list to acronyms based on key words, or perhaps draw symbols and pictograms to represent them. Yes, you can actually use txt language techniques in this academic setting, because you’re not writing these for the markers.
- MEMORISE these acronyms and symbols. Write them out a couple of times. Then test yourself: once you can write the list of memory aids very quickly, with no errors, and can then write out the full “translation” of the memory aid (without cheating), your quotation learning mission is complete.
Wouldn’t it be nice to be able to take a list of quotations into the exam with you? Well this excellent study tactic gives you the next best thing: you can write a memory-jogging list of acronyms and symbols in less than 2 minutes at the start of the exam. Then you can focus on writing your essays with confidence. Better yet, the process of creating this “Quote Sheet” will help you evaluate the key quotations in the text, process them deeply, and understand them better.
Sh – hm! (Study hard – happy memorising!)
“You can’t study for English exams”. I’ve heard this supposed axiom uttered many times. Well, actually, yes you can study for English, although I agree that the strategies are quite different to those for other subjects. Here’s a quick overview of some that I’ve used, they can be adapted to suit other essay-based subjects too. We’ll go into more detail on these in future, but here are some pointers to start off with.
1) Know the themes of the set texts
2) Know the important techniques used in the texts
3) Memorise some quotations
4) Hone your technical analysis skills
5) Practice writing under pressure!
On that last point: there is absolutely no substitute for this! You will be examined by having to write an essay under time pressure; so practice writing an essay under time pressure. Exams come with deadly deadlines, so your study strategies should address the critical issue of TIME PRESSURE. For all other study tasks, spend only the smallest amount of time necessary to get to this all-important practice stage. You will not be asked to carefully craft beautiful study notes in the exam! To ease the burden slightly, I suggest you start this phase of your study by writing practice paragraphs and then doing a few full essays closer to the exam.
Yes, I know writing academic essays under pressure can be painful initially, but once you get into it, it really isn’t that bad. All you think about is what you’re writing and the time that’s left; you don’t have room in your mind to mull over how repulsive the exercise first seemed. Besides, this is one of the most effective ways to study, so you don’t need to spend so much time studying overall to get the same result. Thus, it will actually free up your time to do other things. That’s what I like – “work hard, play hard”.
All the best for you studies!
In the last post, we looked at how to improve an essay’s body paragraphs by using the SEX acronym. The best way to explain SEX though, is to give a demonstration. Here’s an example body paragraph from an essay on the poem “Rising Five” by Norman Nicholson. I wrote this in Year 12 (for Cambridge AS English). It’s not perfect, but it’s a verbatim example which will be relevant to many of our followers. I’m open to your comments and suggestions. Take a look and see what you think…
Although the form of the poem is comparatively erratic in the previous stanza, the next is more traditional in layout – it is here that a subtle shift in the mood of the piece can first be detected. The opening line is a startling image of how, over time, changes occur and perfectly suitable opportunities are lost as we grow up; we push them into the past just as “new buds push the old leaves from the bough”. The simile in the next line coincides with this image: “we drop our youth behind us like a boy throwing away his toffee-wrappers.” Verbs like “push” and “drop” have negative connotations, while even the nouns “youth” and “boy” may show the naivety of ignoring the present. After “toffee-wrappers”, caesura is used to show that the past and all its choices are cut off from and inaccessible to us humans who inhabit the present. It is ironic that people often desire to be younger again when they are adults – this backs up the poet’s argument that we need to make prudent decisions about what we do with each day; once we have decided, we can never get that day back again.
SEX in practice:
See how the evidence to support the statement comes in “couples”? Examples are paired with supporting explanations. These pairs of Evidence back up the Statement made in the first sentence (red text). Broadly categorising the parts of the paragraph, there are three Examples (orange text) and three eXplanations (green text). The more SEX in a paragraph, the better! However, don’t overwhelm the reader with a mammoth paragraph – break it up into digestible chunks. Be nice to your reader!
So there’s an overview of how to use the SEX acronym in essays. Can you see how this will enable you to write more compelling paragraphs, and therefore stronger essays?